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Looking at agriculture, the Hemudu culture is one of the earliest cultures to cultivate rice. Rice was planted to facilitate the possibility of storing up surplus grain, which led to the discrepancy between the rich and poor. Most of the artifacts were discovered at Hemudu Relics consist of animal bones and exemplified by hoes made of shoulder bones. They were used for cultivating rice.
The remains of various plants were found at Hemudu, including water caltrop, Nelumbo nucifera, acorns, beans, Gorgon euryale and bottle gourd. The Hemudu people went fishing and hunting. They also domesticated pigs, water buffalo and dogs.
Hemudu Culture produced thick and porous pottery. The distinct pottery was typically black and made with charcoal powder. Plant and geometric designs were commonly painted onto the pottery. The pottery was sometimes also cord-marked. Hemudu Culture also produced carved jade ornaments, carved ivory artifacts and small, clay figurines.