Home > China Guide >Deng-Xiaoping 

China Overview

  • Population: 1.3 billion
  • Currency: yuan
  • Guinness World Records: most people painting each other's faces simultaneously in one location (13,413), largest bottle of cooking oil (containing 3212 litres), most couples hugging (3009 couples).
  • Internet users: 135 million
  • Milk beer: from Inner Mongolia, an alternative to the traditional mare's-milk wine.
  • Squirrel fish: whole mandarin fish deep-fried and manipulated to resemble a squirrel.
  • Number of chinese characters: over 56,000

Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping, a member of the Chinese Communist Party, has rendered outstanding service to the Chinese people. His reform and opening-up policies proved him to be far-sighted and persevering, a man of quick understanding and decisive action. His collective leadership has ushered China into a new historical period.

What is Deng Xiaoping’s life story?

Deng was born in Guang'an County, in the province of Sichuan, on August 22, 1904. Xiaoping's mother, Dan by her family name, died early. At the age of five the boy entered an old-fashioned private pre-school. In 1919, he met Wu Yezhang, a member of the Chongqing,who offered him to go to France on a work-study program. After passing the entrance examinations, the boy was accepted to the school.

During his teenage years, Deng Xiaoping already had some simple patriotic ideas. After the May 4th Movement of 1919, he joined his schoolmate in a boycott of Japanese goods. But his ardent hope was to go to France to learn industrial skills through work and study for the benefit of the country.

Deng Xiaoping

In the summer of 1920, 16 years old Deng Xiaoping was the youngest of all the Chinese students who went to France. Having very high expectations, he kept on unskillful work and gained little, which made him disappointed. However, Russian October Revolution was an impetus to all the new bright ideas he came up with. Under the influence of his seniors, Zhao Shiyan, Zhou Enlai and others, Deng began to study Marxism and did political propaganda work. In 1922 he joined the Communist Party of Chinese Youth in Europe. In the second half of 1924 he joined the Chinese Communist Party and became one of the leading members of the General Branch of the Youth League in Europe. At last, he arrived in his homeland in the spring of 1927. Six years  long experience abroad made Deng Xiaoping a staunch revolutionist with a basic understanding of Marxism-Leninism.

In March 1927 he accepted the Party's offer to go to Xi'an and work at the Sun-Yat-sen Military and political Academy. This was the first place where he carried out revolutionary activities in China. And then, Deng Xiaoping insisted on working for the revolution of Chinese and made a lot of contributions. He made a very good impression and showed great effort during Huai-Hai Campaigns and the Liberating the Great Southwest

In July 1952 the Central Committee of the Party transferred Deng Xiaoping to the central organs. This transfer marked the beginning of another important period in his revolutionary career. He served first as both executive Vice-Premier of the Government Administration Council and Vice-Chairman of the Financial and Economic Commission. At the age of 52 he became one of the chief leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De and Chen Yun. From September 1956 to May 1966 , China began to build socialism in an all-round way. Deng Xiaoping participated in the policy decisions of the Party and the state. At the same time he put forward valuable proposals on many subjects- strengthening Party building procedures.

The "cultural revolution", initiated and led by Mao Zedong, took China down the wrong path. During the ten years of turmoil Deng Xiaoping was twice discredited and removed from the office and went through the most painful ordeal in his revolutionary career.
Deng Xiaoping

Nineteen seventy-six is a year the Chinese people will never forget. Zhou Enlai, Zhu De and Mao Zedong died one after another, plunging the nation into mourning. The new period and the new tasks called for the emergence of a new leader. Since Deng had made valuable contributions, in July 1977, at the Third Plenary Session of the Tenth Central Committee, Deng was reinstated as Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee, Vice-Premier of the State Council, Vice-Chairman of the Military Commission and Chief of the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army.

In march 1978 he was elected Chairman of the Fifth national Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. In September 1982, following the initial successes in socialist modernization and in implementation of reform and the open policy, the Party held its Twelfth National Congress. Since 1986 Deng has again pointed out the importance of political reform. Standing in the forefront of the times, Deng Xiaoping was the man to lead China's reform.


The site of the event is the Nanpu Bridge–Lupu Bridge region in the center of Shanghai along both sides of the Huangpu River. The area of the Expo 2010 covers 5.28 km2.
After winning the bid to host the Expo in 2002, Shanghai began a monumental task to reshape the city. More than AU$48billion was spent for the preparation, more than the cost of cleaning up Beijing in the preparations for the Olympics in 2008. Shanghai began clearing 2.6 square kilometers along the Huangpu River; that involved moving 18,000 families and 270 factories, including the Jiang Nan Shipyard, which employs 10,000 workers.
Six new subway lines have opened between 2008 and 2010. Four thousand brand new taxis have been added in the month preceding Expo2010 opening. The city night lights have been once again improved, using energy-saving LED technology.
Today, the expo site is crowded with national pavilions, sculpture gardens, shops, and a sports arena and performing arts centre which is shaped like a flying saucer. Shanghai has trained more than 1.7 million volunteers and adopted Olympic-level security measures, adding metal detectors to subway entrances and screening cars entering the city. For the first time, Shanghai Expo will also feature an online version of the expo grounds featuring 3D renderings of the expo grounds, and a 3D version of the pavilion interior and offerings.

What is the "one country, two systems" policy?

Deng Xiaoping’s writing works

In order to resolve the questions of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao and to reunify China, Deng formulated the concept of one country, two systems. The concept is an important part of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since 1984 the Hong Kong and Macao questions have been solved on this basis. Deng believes that the same approach can be used to resolve the Taiwan question and perhaps other similar international issues as well.

The concept of "one country, two systems" has had a considerable effect both in China and abroad. This is a one example of Deng's application of the principle of seeking truth from facts to the solution of complicated practical problems.

What is Deng Xiaoping’s writing works?

His writings, Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (1975-1982), Fundamental Issues in Present-day China (1982-1987) - the updated edition of Build Socialism with Chinese Characteristics (1982-1984) - and Comrade Deng Xiaoping's Important Speeches (February-July 1987), are widely known both at home and abroad.

Deng Xiaoping's literary and artistic thought is a subordinate to the Deng Xiaoping Theory, the basic framework, combining two levels of ideological and theoretical elements in its composition. Theoretical elements of these two levels include a mind and soul of literary and artistic significance of the ideological methodology, followed by the fundamental point of view of literary and artistic thought.

What is Deng Xiaoping’s contribution to education?

Deng did not just focus on the economy. He identified other areas where changes had to be made for China to become a world power: there was the need to reconstruct the educational system, especially universities and research institutes; the military had to be streamlined and professionalized; lawyers had to be trained in the intricacies of commercial and corporate law, and be able to have cases heard in a viable and expanded judicial system; more Chinese had to be permitted to study overseas, and foreign students and tourists to come to China.

Deng Xiaoping

As a complementary move, Deng ordered far-reaching reviews of the cases of hundreds of thousands of intellectuals, students and professionals who had been sent into internal exile in impoverished rural areas after the Hundred Flowers Movement in 1957, and later during the Cultural Revolution; under Deng, many were allowed to return to their homes and families.

Through a lifetime of service to the people, Deng Xiaoping has earned the respect and affection of millions of his compatriots. In his long career as a revolutionist Deng Xiaoping has enjoyed many victories and has also been through severe tests. However, through his  contribution to the revolution and  his courage as an innovator , he has earned the trust of the Chinese people and the respect of foreigners.

HOTMost Popular Topics