The style is more direct, more passionate and more forceful. San Qu came from the ordinary people. The rise of San Qu was connected with the new political and social conditions in North China. Border tribes including the Khitan, the Nfizhen and the Mongols moved into North China, bringing with them their music played on horseback. San Qu was born when this music was merged with the passionate songs of Hebei and Liaodong.
Cultural exchange was also very frequent. A rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan Dynasty. The Mongols' extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange. The other cultures and people in the Mongol World Empire greatly influenced China. Tibetan-rite Tantric Buddhism also took permanent root in Chinese Buddhism. The Muslims of the Yuan Dynasty introduced Middle Eastern cartography, astronomy, medicine, clothing, and diet in East Asia. Middle Eastern crops such as carrots, turnips, new varieties of lemons, eggplants, and melons, high-quality granulated sugar, and cotton were all introduced and became popular by the Yuan Mongols.